Phil Christensen

  • Regents' Professor
  • Ed and Helen Korrick Professor
Phil Christensen

Projects

  • Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS)
  • Lucy Thermal Emission Spectrometer (L’TES)
  • Europa Thermal Emission Imaging System (E-THEMIS)
  • OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES)

Philip R. Christensen is a Regents’ Professor of Geological Sciences and the Ed and Helen Korrick Professor in the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University. He completed his PhD in Geophysics and Space Physics at UCLA in 1981. His research interests focus on the composition, physical properties and processes, and morphology of planetary surfaces, with an emphasis on Mars and the Earth.

A major element of his research has been the design and development of spacecraft infrared remote sensing instruments. Christensen was the Principal Investigator for the Thermal Emission System (TES) instrument on Mars Global Surveyor and a Co-Investigator on the Mars Exploration Rover missions, responsible for building and operating the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) instruments.

He is currently the Principal Investigator for the 2001 Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) instrument and the Instrument Scientist for the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) on NASA’s OSIRIS-REx sample-return mission to asteroid Bennu.

Instruments under development by him include an Mars atmosphere monitoring spectrometer for Al-Amir (Hope), a Mars mission by the United Arab Emirates; the Lucy Thermal Emission Spectrometer (L’TES), a thermal-sensing instrument for the Lucy mission to Jupiter’s Trojan asteroids; and E-THEMIS, a temperature-sensing camera for NASA’s Europa Clipper mission to Jupiter’s ice-covered moon Europa.

His research uses infrared spectroscopy, radiometry, laboratory spectroscopic measurements, field observations, and numerical modeling, and has taken him to field sites in the western U.S., Hawaii, Mexico, and South America.

Since the mid-1990’s he has pursued the use of spacecraft observations to study environmental and urban development problems on Earth.

Christensen was awarded NASA’s Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal in 2003 for his pioneering scientific observations of Mars in the infrared, and was elected as a Fellow of the American Geophysical Union in 2004. He was awarded the NASA Public Service Medal in 2005, the Geological Society of America’s G.K. Gilbert Award in 2008, and ASU’s Eugene Shoemaker Memorial Award in 2011. In 2018, he received the American Geophysical Union’s Fred Whipple Award for outstanding contributions in the field of planetary science.

Contact Information

  • Email
  • phil.christensen@asu.edu
  • Office
  • Moeur Rm. 120
  • Phone
  • 480-965-7105

Current Students

Post Doctoral Fellow

  • Anna Grau Galofre
  • Arizona State University
  • Jonathon Hill
  • Arizona State University
  • Sean Peters
  • Arizona State University
  • Kathryn Powell
  • Arizona State University

Ph D Students

  • Saira Hamid
  • Arizona State University
  • Jonathon Hill
  • Arizona State University
  • Alexandra Huff
  • Arizona State University
  • Aditya Khuller
  • Arizona State University
  • Jayanth Serla
  • Arizona State University

Student Workers

  • Omar Alavi
  • Arizona State University
  • Andrew Holmes
  • Arizona State University
  • John Janiczek, Graduate Student Worker
  • Arizona State University
  • David Madden
  • Arizona State University
  • Sarah Myers
  • Arizona State University
  • Carlos Ortiz
  • Arizona State University
  • Aaron Rios
  • Arizona State University

Courses

Spring 2021

  • SES 394
  • Space Works I
  • SES 493
  • Honors Thesis
  • SES 494
  • Special Topics
  • SES 692
  • Research
  • SES 792
  • Research
  • SES 799
  • Dissertation

Fall 2020

  • SES 692
  • Research
  • SES 792
  • Research
  • SES 799
  • Dissertation
  • GLG 598
  • Special Topics
  • SES 494
  • Special Topics
  • SES 492
  • Honors Directed Study
  • GLG 494
  • Special Topics

Publications

2019

Coles, K.S., Tanaka, K.L. and Christensen, P.R.,  The Atlas of Mars: Mapping its Geography and Geology. Cambridge University Press. August 2019.

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DellaGiustina, D. N., J. P. Emery, D. R. Golish, B. Rozitis, C. A. Bennett, K. N. Burke R.L. Ballouz, K. J. Becker, P. R. Christensen, C. Y. Drouet d’Aubigny, V. E. Hamilton, D. C. Reuter, B. Rizk, A. A. Simon, E. Asphaug, J. L. Bandfield, O. S. Barnouin, M. A. Barucci, E. B. Bierhaus, R. P. Binzel, W. F. Bottke, N. E. Bowles, H. Campins, B. C, Clark, B. E. Clark, H. C. Connolly Jr., M. G. Daly, J. de Leon, M. Delbo, J. D. P. Deshapriya, C. M. Elder, S. Fornasier, C. W. Hergenrother, E. S. Howell, E. R. Jawin, H. H. Kaplan, T. R. Kareta, L. Le Corre, J.-Y. Li, J. Licandro, L. F. Lim, P. Michel, J. Molaro, M. C. Nolan, M. Pajola, M. Popescu, J. L. Rizos Garcia, A. Ryan, S. R. Schwartz, N. Shultz, M. A. Siegler, P. H. Smith, E. Tatsumi, C. A. Thomas, K. J. Walsh, C. W. V. Wolner, X.-D. Zou, D. S. Lauretta, Properties of rubble-pile asteroid (101955) Bennu from OSIRIS-REx imaging and thermal analysis. Nature Astron 3, 341–351 (2019) doi:10.1038/s41550-019-0731-1

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Hamilton, V.E., A. A. Simon, P. R. Christensen, D. C. Reuter, B. E. Clark, M. A. Barucci, N. E. Bowles, W. V. Boynton, J. R. Brucato, E. A. Cloutis, H. C. Connolly Jr, K. L. Donaldson Hanna, J. P. Emery, H. L. Enos, S. Fornasier, C. W. Haberle, R. D. Hanna, E. S. Howell, H. H. Kaplan, L. P. Keller, C. Lantz, J.-Y. Li, L. F. Lim, T. J. McCoy, F. Merlin, M. C. Nolan , A. Praet, B. Rozitis, S. A. Sandford, D. L. Schrader , C. A. Thomas, X.-D. Zou, D. S. Lauretta, Evidence for widespread hydrated minerals on asteroid (101955) Bennu. Nature  Astron 3, 332–340 (2019) doi: 10.1038/s41550-019-0722-02

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Vu, T. H., S. Piqueux, M. Choukroun, C. S. Edwards, P. R. Christensen, T. D. Glotch, Low-temperature specific heat capacity measurements and application to Mars thermal modeling, 2019, Icarus, 321, 824-840.

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2018

Huang, J., M.R. Salvatore, C.S. Edwards, R.L. Harris, P. R. Christensen, A complex fluviolacustrine environment on early Mars and its astrobiological potentials, Astrobioloty, 18, doi: 10.1089/ast.2017.1757

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 Christensen, P. R., V. E. Hamilton, G. L. Mehall, D. Pelham, W. O’Donnell, S. Anwar, H. Bowles, S. Chase, J. Fahlgren, Z. Farkas, T. Fisher, O. James, I. Kubik, I. Lazbin, M. Miner, M. Rassas, L. Schulze, K. Shamordola, T. Tourville, G. West, R. Woodward, and D. Lauretta (2018), The OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) Instrument, Space Science Reviews, 214(5), p.87.

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Bennett, K.A., J.R. Hill, K.C. Murray, C.S. Edwards, J.F. Bell, P.R. Christensen, THEMIS‐VIS Investigations of Sand at Gale Crater, Earth and Space Sci. Reviews, 5, 2018, doi: 10.1029/2018EA000380

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Chakraborty, S., A Banerjee, S.K.S. Gupta, P. R. Christensen, Time-Varying Modeling of Land Cover Change Dynamics Due to Forest Fires, EEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing,11, 1769-1776, 2018, doi: 10.1109/JSTARS.2018.2818060.

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Horgan, B., K. Morrison, G. Retallack, P. R. Christensen, and J. F. Bell, Evaluating a surface weathering origin for phyllosilicates in ancient sediments on Mars: Spectral characteristics and clay mineralogy of a terrestrial paleosol sequence, J. Geophys. Res.

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2017

Lauretta, D. S., S. S. Balram-Knutson, E. Beshore, W. V. Boynton, C. Drouet d’Aubigny, D. N. DellaGiustina, H. L. Enos, D. R. Golish, C. W. Hergenrother, E. S. Howell, C. A. Bennett, E. T. Morton, M. C. Nolan, B. Rizk, H. L. Roper, A. E. Bartels, B. J. Bos, J. P. Dworkin, D. E. Highsmith, D. A. Lorenz, L. F. Lim, R. Mink, M. C. Moreau, J. A. Nuth, D. C. Reuter, A. A. Simon, E. B. Bierhaus, B. H. Bryan, R. Ballouz, O. S. Barnouin, R. P. Binzel, W. F. Bottke, V. E. Hamilton, K. J. Walsh, S. R. Chesley, P. R. Christensen, B. E. Clark, H. C. Connolly, M. K. Crombie, M. G. Daly, J. P. Emery, T. J. McCoy, J. W. McMahon, D. J. Scheeres, S. Messenger, K. Nakamura-Messenger, K. Righter, and S. A. Sandford (2017), OSIRIS-REx: Sample Return from Asteroid (101955) Bennu, Space Science Reviews, 212(1), 925-984, doi:10.1007/s11214-017-0405-1.

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Hill, J.R., P. R. Christensen, Well‐preserved low thermal inertia ejecta deposits surrounding young secondary impact craters on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 122, 2017, doi: 10.1002/2016JE005210

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Salvatore, M. R., T. A. Goudge, M. S. Bramble, C. S. Edwards, J. L. Bandfield, E. S. Amador, J. F. Mustard, and P. R. Christensen, Bulk mineralogy of the NE Syrtis and Jezero crater regions of Mars derived through thermal infrared spectral analyses,  Icarus 301 (2018): 76-96.

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Christensen, P. R., V. E. Hamilton, G. L. Mehall, D. Pelham, W. O’Donnell, S. Anwar, H. Bowles, S. Chase, J. Fahlgren, Z. Farkas, T. Fisher, O. James, I. Kubik, I. Lazbin, M. Miner, M. Rassas, L. Schulze, K. Shamordola, T. Tourville, G. West, R. Woodward, and D. Lauretta (2018), The OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES) Instrument, Space Sci Rev (2018) 214: 87. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-018-0513-6

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Horgan, B. H. N., R. J. Smith, E. A. Cloutis, P. Mann, and P.R.Christensen (2017), Acid weathering of basalt and basaltic glass: I. Near-infrared spectra, thermal-infrared spectra, and implications for Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 10.1002/2016JE005111.

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Smith, R. J., B. H. N. Horgan, P. Mann, E.A.Cloutis, and P.R.Christensen (2017), Acid weathering of basalt and basaltic glass: II. Effects of microscopic alteration textures on spectral properties, J. Geophys. Res, 10.1002/2016JE005112.

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2016

Ehlmann, B., F. Anderson, J. Andrews‐Hanna, D. Catling, P. Christensen, B. Cohen, C. Dressing, C. Edwards, L. Elkins‐Tanton, K. Farley, C. I. Fassett, W. W. Fischer, A. A. Fraeman, M. P. Golombek, V. E. Hamilton, A. G. Hayes, C. D. K. Herd, B. Horgan, R.Hu, B. M. Jakosky, J. R. Johnson, J. F. Kasting, L. Kerber, K. M. Kinch, E. S. Kite, H. A. Knutson, J. I. Lunine, P. R. Mahaffy, N. Mangold, F. M. McCubbin, J. F. Mustard, P. B. Niles, C. Quantin-Nataf, M. S. Rice, K. M. Stack, D. J. Stevenson, S. T. Stewart, M. J. Toplis, T. Usui, B. P. Weiss, S. C. Werner, R. D. Wordsworth, J. J. Wray, R. A. Yingst, Y. L. Yung, and K. J. Zahnle (2016), The sustainability of habitability on terrestrial planets: Insights, questions, and needed measurements from Mars for understanding the evolution of Earth‐like worlds, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 121(10), 1927-1961.

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Mitchell, J. L., and P.R.Christensen (2016), Recurring slope lineae and chlorides on the surface of Mars, J. Geophys. Res, 121, doi:10.1002/2016JE005012.

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Salvatore, M. R., M. D. Kraft, C. S. Edwards, and P. R. Christensen (2016), The geologic history of Margaritifer basin, Mars, J. Geophys. Res, DOI: 10.1002/2015JE004938.

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2015

N.R. Williams, J. F. Bell III, P.R. Christensen, and J. D. Farmer (2015), Evidence for an explosive origin of central pit craters on Mars, Icarus, 252, 175-185.

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2014

Duxbury, T. C., P. R. Christensen, D. E. Smith, G. A. Neumann, R. L. Kirk, M. A. Caplinger, A. A. Albee, N. V. Seregina, G. Neukum, and B. A. ARchinal (2014), The location of Airy-0, the Mars prime meridian reference, from stereo photogrammetric processing of THEMIS IR imaging and digital elevation data, J. Geophys. Res., 119, 2471-2486.

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Salvatore, M., and P. Christensen (2014), On the origin of the Vastitas Borealis Formation in Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae, Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets.

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Hamilton, V.E., A.R. Vasavada, E. Sebastián, M. Torre Juárez, M. Ramos, C. Armiens, R.E. Arvidson, I. Carrasco, P.R. Christensen, and M.A. De Pablo (2014), Observations and preliminary science results from the first 100 sols of MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station ground temperature sensor measurements at Gale Crater, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 119(4), 745-770.

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Edwards, C., J. Bandfield, P. Christensen, and A. Rogers (2014), The formation of infilled craters on Mars: Evidence for widespread impact induced decompression of the early martian mantle?, Icarus, 228, 149-166.

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2013

Lane, M. D., and P. R. Christensen (2013), Determining olivine composition of basaltic dunes in gale crater, Mars, from orbit: Awaiting ground truth from Curiosity, Geophys.  Res. Lett.

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Tornabene, L. L., G. R. Osinski, A. S. McEwen, J. J. Wray, M. A. Craig, H. M. Sapers, and P. R. Christensen (2013), An impact origin for hydrated silicates on Mars: A synthesis, J. Geophys. Res, 118, 994-1012.

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Huang, J., C. S. Edwards, S. W. Ruff, P. R. Christensen, and L. Xiao (2013), A new method for the semiquantitative determination of major rock‐forming minerals with thermal infrared multispectral data: Application to THEMIS infrared data, J. Geophys. Res, 118(10), 2146-2152.

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Edwards, C., and P. Christensen (2013), Microscopic emission and reflectance thermal infrared spectroscopy: instrumentation for quantitative in situ mineralogy of complex planetary surfaces, Applied Optics, 52(11), 2200-2217.

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Klug-Boonstra, S., and P. R. Christensen (2013), Mars Student Imaging Project: Real research by secondary students, Science, 339, 920-921.

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2012

Kuzmin, R. O., E. V. Zabalueva, N. A. Evdokimova, and P. R. Christensen (2012), Mapping of the water ice content within the Martian surficial soil on the periphery of the retreating seasonal northern polar cap based on the TES and the OMEGA data, J. Geophys. Res., 117(null), E00J19.

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Piqueux, S., and P. R. Christensen (2012), Visible and thermal infrared observations of the Martian surface during three Phobos shadow transits, Geophys.  Res. Lett., 39(21).

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Rampe, E., M. Kraft, T. Sharp, D. Golden, D. Ming, and P. Christensen (2012), Allophane detection on Mars with Thermal Emission Spectrometer data and implications for regional-scale chemical weathering processes, Geology, 40(11), 995-998

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Huang, J., C. S. Edwards, B. H. N. Horgan, P. R. Christensen, M. D. Kraft, and L. Xiao (2012), Identification and mapping of dikes with relatively primitive compositions in Thaumasia Planum on Mars: Implications for Tharsis volcanism and the opening of Valles Marineris, Geophysical Research Letters, 39(17), L17201

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Horgan, B., J. L. Bishop, P. R. Christensen, and J. F. Bell (2012), Potential Ancient Soils Preserved at Mawrth Vallis from Comparisons with Eastern Oregon Paleosols: Implications for Early Martian Climate,, Third Conference on Early Mars, #7074.

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Ryan, A. J., and P. R. Christensen (2012), Coils and Polygonal Crust in the Athabasca Valles Region, Mars, as Evidence for a Volcanic History, Science, 336(6080), 449-452.

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Fergason, R. L., P. R. Christensen, M. P. Golombek, and T. J. Parker (2012), Surface properties of the Mars Science Laboratory candidate landing sites: characterization from orbit and predictions, Space Science Reviews, 1-35.

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Xiao, L., J. Huang, P. R. Christensen, R. Greeley, D. A. Williams, J. Zhao, and Q. He (2012), Ancient volcanism and its implication for thermal evolution of Mars, Earth

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2011

Edwards, C. S., K. J. Nowicki, P. R. Christensen, J. Hill, N. Gorelick, and K. Murray (2011), Mosaicking of global planetary image datasets: 1. Techniques and data processing for Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) multi-spectral data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(E10), E10008.

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Wright, S. P., P. R. Christensen, and T. G. Sharp (2011), Laboratory thermal emission spectroscopy of shocked basalt from Lonar Crater, India, and implications for Mars orbital and sample data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(E9), E09006.

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Piqueux, S., and P. R. Christensen (2011), Temperature-dependent thermal inertia of homogeneous Martian regolith, Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(E7), E07004.

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Ruff, S. W., J. D. Farmer, W. M. Calvin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, R. V. Morris, M. S. Rice, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell Iii, and P. R. Christensen (2011), Characteristics, distribution, origin, and significance of opaline silica observed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater, Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research, 116(null), E00F23.

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Ashley, J. W., M. P. Golombek, P. R. Christensen, S. W. Squyres, T. J. McCoy, C. Schrˆder, I. Fleischer, J. R. Johnson, K. E. Herkenhoff, and T. J. Parker (2011), Evidence for mechanical and chemical alteration of iron-nickel meteorites on Mars: Process insights for Meridiani Planum, J. Geophys. Res, 116, E00F20.

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Rampe, E. B., M. D. Kraft, T. G. Sharp, D. C. Golden, D. W. Ming, P. R. Christensen, and S. W. Ruff (2011), Detection of allophae on Mars through orbital and in-situ thermal infrared spectroscopy, Lunar and Planet. Sci., 42, Abs. #2145.

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Zipfel, J., C. Schroder, B. L. Jolliff, R. Gellert, K. E. Herkenhoff, R. Rieder, R. Anderson, J. F. Bell III, J. Brickner, J. A. Crisp, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. P.A. de souza, G. Dreibus, C. D’Uston, T. Economou, S. P. Gorevan, B.C.Hahn, G. Klingelhofer, T. J. McCoy, J. H.Y. McSween, D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, D. S. Rodionov, S. W. Squyres, H. Wanke, S. P. Wright, M. B. Wyatt, and A. S. Yen (2011), Bounce Rock‚A shergottite-Like basalt encountered at Meridiani Planum, Mars, Meteoritics & Planetary Science.

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2010

Milam, K. A., H. Y. McSween Jr, J. Moersch, and P. R. Christensen (2010), Distribution and variation of plagioclase compositions on Mars, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(E9), E09004.

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McConnochie, T. H., J. F. Bell Iii, D. Savransky, M. J. Wolff, A. D. Toigo, H. Wang, M. I. Richardson, and P. R. Christensen (2010), THEMIS-VIS observations of clouds in the martian mesosphere: Altitudes, wind speeds, and decameter-scale morphology, Icarus, 210, 545-565.

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Presley, M. A., and P. R. Christensen (2010), Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials: 4. Effect of bulk density for granular particles, J. Geophys. Res, 115(E07003), doi:10.1029/2009JE003482

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Presley, M. A., and P. R. Christensen (2010), Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials: 5. Effect of bulk density and particle shape, Journal of Geophysical Research, 115(E7), E07004

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Hayward, R. K., L. K. Fenton, K. L. Tanaka, T. N. Titus, and P. R. Christensen (2010), Mars global digital dune database: Dune volume estimates in the north polar region.

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2009

Edwards, C. S., J. L. Bandfield, P. R. Christensen, and R. L. Fergason (2009), Global distribution of bedrock exposures on Mars using THEMIS high resolution thermal inertia, J. Geophys. Res, 114, doi:10.1029/2009JE003363.

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Piqueux, S., and P. R. Christensen (2009), A Model of Thermal Conductivity for Planetary Soils 2. Theory for Cemented Soils, J. Geophys. Res, doi:10.1029/2008JE003309.

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Piqueux, S., and P. R. Christensen (2009), A Model of Thermal Conductivity for Planetary Soils 1. Theory for Unconsolidated Soils, J. Geophys. Res, doi:10.1029/2008JE003308

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Lang, N. P., L. L. Tornabene, H. Y. McSween, and P. R. Christensen (2009), Tharsis-sourced relatively dust-free lavas and their possible relationship to Martian meteorites, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 185(1-2), 103-115.

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Baldridge, A. M., and P. R. Christensen (2009), A Laboratory Technique for Thermal Emission Measurement of Hydrated Minerals, Applied Spectroscopy, 63(6), 678-688.

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Squyres, S. W., A. H. Knoll, R. E. Arvidson, J. W. Ashley, J. F. Bell Iii, W. M. Calvin, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, B. A. Cohen, and P. A. de Souza Jr (2009), Exploration of Victoria Crater by the Mars Rover Opportunity, Science, 324(5930), 1058.

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Hayward, R. K., T. N. Titus, T. I. Michaels, L. K. Fenton, A. Colaprete, and P. R. Christensen (2009), Aeolian dunes as ground truth for atmospheric modeling on Mars, J. Geophys. Res, 114, E11012, doi:11010.11029/12009JE003428.

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Kuzmin, R. O., E. V. Zabalueva, and P. R. Christensen (2009), Estimation and mapping of wintertime increase in water ice content of the Martian surface soil based on seasonal Thermal Emission Spectrometer thermal inertia variations, J. Geophys. Res, 114(E4), doi:10.1029/2008JE003222.

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2008

Tornabene, L., J. Moersch, H. Y. M. Jr., V. Hamilton, J. Piatek, and P. Christensen, Surface and crater-exposed lithologic units of the Isidis Basin as mapped by co-analysis of THEMIS and TES derived data products, J. Geophys. Res, doi:10.1029/2007JE002988, 2008.

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Bell, J. F., III, T. Glotch, V. Hamilton, T. McConnochie, T. McCord, A. McEwen, P. Christensen, and R. Arvidson (2008), Visible to Near-IR Multispectral Observations of Mars, in The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy, and Physical Properties, edited by J. F. Bell III, Cambridge University Press.

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Christensen, P. R., J. L. Bandfield, R. L. Fergason, V. E. Hamilton, and A. D. Rogers (2008), The Compositional Diversity and Physical Properties Mapped from the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), in The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy, and Physical Properties, edited by J. F. Bell, III, Cambridge University Press.

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Christensen, P. R., J. L. Bandfield, A. D. Rogers, T. D. Glotch, V. E. Hamilton, S. W. Ruff, and M. B. Wyatt (2008), Global Mineralogy Mapped from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer, in The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy, and Physical Properties, edited by J. F. Bell, III, Cambridge University Press.

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Goldenson, N., S. Desch, and P. Christensen, Non-equilibrium between dust and gas temperatures in the Mars atmosphere, Geophys.  Res. Lett., 35, doi:10.1029/2007GL032907, 2008.

 

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Osterloo, M. M., V. E. Hamilton, J. L. Bandfield, T. D. Glotch, A. M. Baldridge, P. R. Christensen, L. L. Tornabene, and F. S. Anderson, Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars, Science, 319, DOI: 10.1126/science.1150690, 2008.

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Piqueux, S., and P. R. Christensen, Deposition of CO2 and erosion of the Martian south perennial cap between 1972 and 2004: Implications for current climate change, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2007JE002969, 2008.

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2007

Cushing, G. E., T. N. Titus, J. J. Wynne, and P. R. Christensen, THEMIS observes possible cave skylights on Mars, Geophys.  Res. Lett., 34, L17201, doi:17210.11029/12007GL030709, 2007.

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Michalski, J. R., S. J. Reynolds, P. B. Niles, T. G. Sharp, and P. R. Christensen, Alteration mineralogy in detachment zones: Insights from Swansea, Arizona, Geosphere, 3, 184-198; doi: 110.1130/GES00080.00081, 2007.

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Rampey, M. L., K. A. Milam, H. Y. McSween, Jr., J. E. Moersch, and P. R. Christensen, Identity and emplacement of domical structures in the western Arcadia Planitia, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 112, E06011, doi:06010.01029/02006JE002750, 2007.

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Ruff, S. W., and P. R. Christensen, Basaltic andesite, altered basalt, and a TES-based search for smectite clay minerals on Mars, Geophys.  Res. Lett., 34, doi:10.1029/2007GL029602, 2007.

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Dunn, T. L., H. Y. McSween, Jr., and P. R. Christensen, Thermal emission spectra of terrestrial alkaline volcanic rocks, J. Geophys. Res., 112, doi:10.1029/2006JE002766, 2007.

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Hayward, R. K., K. F. Mullins, L. K. Fenton, T. M. Hare, T. N. Titus, M. C. Bourke, A. Colaprete, and P. R. Christensen, Mars Global Digital Dune Database and initial science results, J. Geophys. Res., 112, E11007, doi:11010.11029/12007JE002943, 2007.

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Nowicki, S. A., and P. R. Christensen, Rock abundance on Mars from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer, J. Geophys. Res., 112, doi:10.1029/2006JE002798, 2007.

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Rogers, A. D., J. L. Bandfield, and P. R. Christensen, Global spectral classification of martian low-albedo regions with Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) data, J. Geophys. Res., 112, E02004, doi:02010.01029/02006JE002726, 2007.

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Milam, K. A., J. McSween H. Y., and P.R.Christensen, Plagioclase compositions derived from thermal emission spectra of compositionally complex mixtures: Implications for Martian feldspar mineralogy, J. Geophys. Res., 112, E10005, doi 10010.11029/12006JE002880, 2007.

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Rogers, A. D., and P. R. Christensen, Surface mineralogy of martian low-albedo regions from MGS TES data: Implications for crustal evolution and surface alteration, J. Geophys. Res., 112, E01003, doi:01010.01029/02006JE002727, 2007.

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Stockstill, K. R., J. E. Moersch, H. Y. McSween, Jr., J. Piatek, and P. R. Christensen, TES and THEMIS study of proposed paleolake basins within the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 112, 10.1029/2005JE002517, 2007.

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2006

Ruff, S. W., P. R. Christensen, D. L. Blaney, W. H. Farrand, J. R. Johnson, J. R. Michalski, J. E. Moersch, S. P. Wright, and S. W. Squyres, The rocks of Gusev Crater as viewed by the Mini-TES instrument, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2006JE002747, 2006.

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Tornabene, L. L., J. E. Moersch, J. McSween H. Y., A. S. McEwen, J. L. Piatek, K. A. Milam, and P. R. Christensen, Identification of large (2-10 km) rayed craters on Mars in THEMIS thermal infrared images: Implications for possible Martian meteorite source regions., J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JE002600, 2006

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McSween, H. Y., S. W. Ruff, R. V. Morris, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, R. Gellert, K. R. Stockstill, L. L. Tornabene, S. W. Squyres, J. A. Crisp, P. R. Christensen, T. J. McCoy, D. W. Mittlefehldt, and M. Schmidt, Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E09S91, doi:10.1029/2006JE002698, 2006.

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Haberle, R. M., M. A. Kahre, J. R. Murphy, P. R. Christensen, and R. Greeley, Role of dust devils and orbital precession in closing the Martian dust cycle, Geophys.  Res. Lett., 33, 10.1029/2006GL026188, 2006.

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Glotch, T. D., J. L. Bandfield, P. R. Christensen, W. M. Calvin, S. M. McLennan, B. C. Clark, A. D. Rogers, and S. W. Squyres, The mineralogy of the light-toned outcrop at Meridiani Planum as seen by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer and implications for its formation, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2005JE002672, 2006

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Squyres, S. W., O. Aharonson, R. E. Arvidson, I. J. F. Bell, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, W. Farrand, T. Glotch, M. P. Golombek, J. Grant, J. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, A. H. Knoll, S. M. McLennan, H. Y. McSween, J. M. Moore, J. J. W. Rice, and N. Tosca, Bedrock formation at Meridiani Planum, Nature, 443, doi:10.1038/nature05212, 2006.

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Jakosky, B. M., B. M. Hynek, S. M. Pelkey, M. T. Mellon, S. Martínez-Alonso, N. E. Putzig, N. Murphy, and P. R. Christensen, Thermophysical properties of the MER and Beagle II landing site regions on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 111, doi:10.1029/2004JE002320, 2006.

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Johnson, J. R., J. Sohl-Dickstein, W. M. Grundy, R. E. Arvidson, J. Bell, III, P. Christensen, T. Graff, E. A. Guinness, K. Kinch, R. Morris, and M. K. Shepard, Radiative transfer modeling of dust-coated Pancam calibration target materials: Laboratory visible/near-infrared spectrogoniometry, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S07, 10.1029/2005JE002658, 2006.

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Kieffer, H. H., P. R. Christensen, and T. N. Titus, CO2 jets fromed by sublimation beneath translucent slab ice in Mars’ seasonal south polar ice cap, Nature, 442, 793-796, doi:710.1038/nature04945, 2006.

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McConnochie, T. H., J. F. Bell, D. Savransky, G. Mehall, M. Caplinger, P. R. Christensen, L. Cherednik, K. Bender, and A. Dombovari, Calibration and in-flight performance of the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System visible imaging subsystem (THEMIS VIS), J. Geophys. Res., 111, 10.1029/2005JE002568, 2006.

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Christensen, P. R., Water at the poles and in permafrost regions on Mars, Elements, 2, 151-157, 2006.

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Glotch, T. D., P. R. Christensen, and T. G. Sharp, Fresnel modeling of hematite crystal surfaces and application to martian hematite spherules, Icarus, 181, 408-418, 2006

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Michalski, J. R., M. D. Kraft, T. G. Sharp, L. B. Williams, and P. R. Christensen, Emission spectroscopy of clay minerals and evidence for poorly crystalline aluminosilicates on Mars from Thermal Emission Spectrometer data, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E03004, doi:03010.01029/02005JE002438, 2006.

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Christensen, P. R., N. S. Gorelick, G. L. Mehall, and K. C. Murray, THEMIS Public Data Releases, Planetary Data System node, Arizona State University, <http://themis-data.asu.edu>2006

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Arvidson, R. E., F. Poulet, R. V. Morris, J.-P. Bibring, J. F. B. III, S. W. Squyres, P. R. Christensen, G. Bellucci, B. L. Ehlmann, W. H. Farrand, R. L. Fergason, M. Golombek, J. L. Griffes, J. Grotzinger, E. A. Guinness, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, G. Klingelhöfer, Y. Langevin, D. Ming, K. Seelos, R. J. Sullivan, J. G. Ward, S. M. Wiseman, and M. Wolff, Nature and origin of the hematite-bearing plains of Terra Meridiani based on analyses of orbital and Mars Exploration rover data sets, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S08, doi:10.1029/2006JE002728, 2006.

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Fergason, R. L., P.R.Christensen, J. F. Bell III, M. P. Golombek, K. E. Herkenhoff, and H. H. Kieffer, Physical properties of the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites as inferred from Mini-TES-derived thermal inertia, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S21, doi:10.1029/2005JE002583, 2006

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Li, R., B. A. Archinal, R. E. Arvidson, J. Bell, P. Christensen, L. Crumpler, D. J. D. Marais, K. Di, T. Duxbury, M. Golombek, J. Grant, R. Greeley, J. Guinn, A. Johnson, R. L. Kirk, M. Maimone, L. H. Matthies, M. Malin, T. Parker, M. Sims, S. Thompson, S. W. Squyres, and L. A. Soderblom, Spirit rover localization and topographic mapping at the landing site of Gusev crater, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S06, doi:10.1029/2005JE002483, 2006

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Spanovich, N., M. D. Smith, P. H. Smith, M.J. Wolff, P. R. Christensen, and S. W. Squyres, Surface and near-surface atmospheric temperatures for the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites, Icarus, 180, 314-320, doi:310.1016/j.icarus.2005.1009.1014, 2006

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McSween, H. Y., et al., Characterization and petrologic interpretation of olivine-rich basalts at Gusev Crater, Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S10, doi:1029/2005JE002477, 2006

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Golombek, M. P., L. S. Crumpler, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, N. A. Cabrol, T.J.Parker, J. W. Rice, Jr., J. G. Ward, R. E. Arvidson, J. E. Moersch, R. L. Fergason, P.R.Christensen, A.Castano, R. Castano, A. F. C. Haldeman, R. Li, J. F. Bell, III, and S. W. Squyres, Geology of the Cusev cratered plains from the Spirit rover traverse, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S07, doi:10.1029/2005JE002503, 2006

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Arvidson, R. E., et al., Overview of the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover Mission to Gusev Crater: Landing site to Backstay Rock in the Columbia Hills, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S01, doi:10.1029/2005JE002499, 2006.

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Greeley, R., R. E. Arvidson, P. W. Barlett, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, R. L. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, G. A. Landis, M. T. Lemmon, S. M. McLennan, J. N. Maki, T. Michaels, J. E. Moersch, L. D. V. Neakrase, S. C. R. Rafkin, L. Richter, S. W. Squyres, P. A. de Souza, Jr., R. J. Sullivan, S. D. Thompson, and P. L. Whelley, Gusev crater: Wind-related features and processes observed by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, J. Geophys. Res., 111, E02S09, doi:1029/2005JE002491, 2006.

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2005

Christensen, P. R., H. H. Kieffer, and T. Titus, Infrared and visible observations of south polar spots and fans, Eos Trans, AGU, 86(52), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract P23C-04, 2005.

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Christensen, P.R., H.Y. McSween, Jr., J.L. Bandfield, S.W. Ruff, A.D. Rogers, V.E. Hamilton, N. Gorelick, M.B. Wyatt, B.M. Jakosky, H.H. Kieffer, M.C. Malin, and J.E. Moersch, Evidence for igneous diversity and magmatic evolution on Mars from infrared spectral observations, Nature, 436, doi:10.1038/nature03639, 2005.

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Clark, B. C., R. V. Morris, S. M. McLennan, R. Gellert, B. Jolliff, A. H. Knoll, S. W. Squyres, T. K. Lowenstein, D. W. Ming, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, P. R. Christensen, S. Gorevan, J. Bruckner, W. Calvin, G. Dreibus, W. Farrand, G. Klingelhoefer, H. Waenke, J. Zipfel, J. F. Bell III, J. Grotzinger, H. Y. McSween, and R. Rieder, Chemistry and mineralogy of outcrops at Meridiani Planum, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 240, 73-94, 2005.

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McLennan, S. M., et al., Provenance and diagenesis of the evaporite-bearing Burns formation, Meridiani Planum, Mars, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 240, 95-121, 2005.

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Glotch, T. D., and P. R. Christensen, Geologic and mineralogic mapping of Aram Chaos: Evidence for a water-rich history, J. Geophys. Res., 110, E09006, doi:09010.01029/02004JE02389, 2005

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Mouginis-Mark, P. J., and P. R. Christensen, New observations of volcanic features on Mars from the THEMIS instrument, J. Geophys. Res., 110, doi:10.1029/2005JE002421, 2005.

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McEwen, A. S., B. S. Preblich, E. P. Turtle, N. A. Artemieva, M. P. Golombek, M. Hurst, R. L. Kirk, D. M. Burr, and P. R. Christensen, The rayed crater Zunil and interpretations of small impact craters on Mars Icarus, 176, 351-381, 2005.

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Haskin, L. A., et al., Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater, Nature, 436, 66-69, doi:10.1038/nature03640, 2005.

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Christensen, P. R., The Many Faces of Mars, Scientific American, July, 293, 32-39, 2005

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Christensen, P. R., S. W. Ruff, R. L. Fergason, T. D. Glotch, N. Gorelick, B. M. Jakosky, M. D. Lane, A. S. McEwen, H. Y. McSween, Jr., G. L. Mehall, K. Milam, J. E. Moersch, S. M. Pelkey, A. D. Rogers, and W. B. Wyatt, Mars Exploration Rover candidate landing sites as viewed by THEMIS, Icarus, 187, 12-43, 2005.

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Golombek, M. P., R. E. Arvidson, I. J.F. Bell, P. R. Christensen, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, B. L. Ehlmann, R. L. Fergason, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, A. F. C. Haldemann, D. M. Kass, T. J. Parker, J. T. Schofield, S. W. Squyres, and R. W. Zurek, Assessment of Mars Exploration Rover landing site predictions, Nature, 436, 44-48, doi:10.1038/nature03600, 2005.

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Greeley, R., R. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, III, P. R. Christensen, D. Foley, A. F. C. Haldemann, R. O. Kuzmin, G. Landis, L. D. V. Neakrase, G. Neukum, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, S. D. Thompson, P. L. Whelley, and D. Williams, Martian variable features: New insight from the Mars Express Orbiter and the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, J. Geophys. Res., 110, DOI: 10.1029/2005JE002403, 2005.

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Hamilton, V. E., and P. R. Christensen, Evidence for extensive olivine-rich bedrock in Nili Fossae, Mars, Geology, 33, 433-436, 2005.

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Rogers, A. D., P. R. Christensen, and J. L. Bandfield, Compositional heterogeneity of the ancient martian crust: Analysis of Ares Vallis bedrock the THEMIS and TES data, J. Geophys. Res., 110, DOI:10.1029/2005JE002399, 2005.

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Michalski, J. R., M. D. Kraft, T. G. Sharp, L. B. Williams, and P. R. Christensen, Mineralogical constraints on the high-silica Martian surface component observed by TES, Icarus, 174, 161-177, 2005.

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Cushing, G. E., T. N. Titus, and P. R. Christensen, THEMIS VIS and IR observations of a high-altitude Martian dust devil, Geophys.  Res. Lett., 32, L23202, doi:23210.21029/22005GL024478, 2005.

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Edwards, C. S., J. L. Bandfield, P. R. Christensen, and R. L. Fergason, Global distribution of bedrock on Mars using THEMIS high resolution thermal inertia, Eos Trans. AGU, 86(52),  Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract P21C-0158, 2005.

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Yen, A. S., et al., An integrated view of the chemistry and mineralogy of martian soils, Nature, 436, 49-54, doi:10.1038/nature3637, 2005

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2004

Squyres, S.W., et al., The Opportunity Rover’s Athena Science Investigation at Meridiani Planum, Mars, Science, 306, 1698-1703, 2004.

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Christensen, P.R., M.B. Wyatt, T.D. Glotch, A.D. Rogers, S. Anwar, R.E. Arvidson, J.L. Bandfield, D.L. Blaney, C. Budney, W.M. Calvin, A. Fallacaro, R.L. Fergason, N. Gorelick, T.G. Graff, V.E. Hamilton, A.G. Hayes, J.R. Johnson, A.T. Knudson, H.Y. McSween, Jr., G.L. Mehall, L.K. Mehall, J.E. Moersch, R.V. Morris, M.D. Smith, S.W. Squyres, S.W. Ruff, and M.J. Wolff, Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES Experiment on the Opportunity Rover, Science, 306, 1733-1739, 2004.

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Arvidson, R.E., R.C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, I. J. F. Bell, P.R. Christensen, P. Chu, K. Davis, B.L. Ehlmann, M.P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, E.A. Guinness, A.F.C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, D.W. Ming, T. Myrick, T. Parker, L. Richter, I. F.P. Seelos, S.W. Squyres, R.J. Sullivan, and J. Wilson, Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Opportunity at Meridiani Planum, Science, 306, 1730-1733, 2004.

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Smith, M.D., M.J. Wolff, M.T. Lemmon, N. Spanovich, D. Banfield, C.J. Budney, R.T. Clancy, A. Ghosh, G.A. Landis, P.Smith, B. Whitney, P.R. Christensen, and S.W. Squyres, First atmospheric results from the Mars Exploration rovers Mini-TES, Science, 306, 1750-1753, 2004.

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Soderblom, L.A., et al., Soils of Eagle crater and Meridiani Planum at the Opportunity rover landing site, Science, 306, 1723-1726, 2004.

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Squyres, S.W., J.P. Grotzinger, I. J.F. Bell, P.R. Christensen, B.C. Clark, J.A. Crisp, W.H. Farrand, K.E. Herkenhoff, G. Klingelhöfer, A.H. Knoll, S.M. McLennan, H.Y. McSween, R.V. Morris, R. Rieder, and L.A. Soderblom, In-situ evidence for an ancient aqueous environment on Mars, Science, 306, 1709-1714, 2004.

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Bandfield, J.L., D. Rogers, M.D. Smith, and P.R.Christensen, Atmospheric correction and surface spectral unit mapping using Thermal Emission Imaging System data, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E10008, doi:10.1029/2004JE002289, 2004.

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Christensen, P.R., and S.W. Ruff, The formation of the hematite-bearing unit in Meridiani Planum: Evidence for deposition in standing water, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E08003, doi:10.1029/2003JE002233, 2004.

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Bandfield, J.L., Hamilton, V.E., Christensen, P.R., and McSween, H.Y., Identification of quartzofeldspath materials on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 109(10).

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Christensen, P.R., and S.W. Ruff, The formation of the hematite-bearing unit in Meridiani Planum:  Evidence for deposition in standing water, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E08003, doi:10.1029/2003JE002233, 2004.

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Christensen, P.R., S.W. Ruff, R.L. Fergason, A.T. Knudson, R.E. Arvidson, J.L. Bandfield, D.L. Blaney, C. Budney, W.M. Calvin, T.D. Glotch, M.P. Golombek, T.G. Graff, V.E. Hamilton, A. Hayes, J.R. Johnson, H.Y. McSween, Jr., G.L. Mehall, L.K. Mehall, J.E. Moersch, R.V. Morris, A.D. Rogers, M.D. Smith, S.W. Squyres, M.J. Wolff, and M.B. Wyatt, Initial results from the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment at the Spirit landing site at Gusev Crater, Science, 305, 837-842, 2004.

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Grant, J.A., J.A. Grant, R. Arvidson, J.F.B. III, N.A. Cabrol, M.H. Carr, P. Christensen, L. Crumpler, D.J.D. Marais, B.L. Ehlmann, J. Farmer, M. Golombek, F.D. Grant, R. Greeley, K. Herkenhoff, R. Li, H.Y. McSween, Jr., D.W. Ming, J. Moersch, J.W.R. Jr., S. Ruff, L. Richter, S. Squyres, R. Sullivan, and C. Weitz, Surficial deposits at Gusev Crater along Spirit rover traverses, Science, 305, 807-810, 2004.

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McSween, H.Y., Jr., et al., Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev Crater, Science, 305, 842-845, 2004.

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Squyres, S.W., et al., The Spirit Rover’s Athena science investigation at Gusev Crater, Mars, Science, 305, 794-799, 2004.

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Glotch, T.D., R.V. Morris, P.R. Christensen, and T.G. Sharp, Effect of precursor mineralogy on the thermal infrared emission spectra of hematite: Application to martian hematite mineralization, J. Geophys. Res., 109, E07003, doi:10.1029/2003JE002224, 2004.

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Saunders, R.S., R.E. Arvidson, G.D. Badhwar, W.V. Boynton, P.R. Christensen, F.A. Cucinotta, R.G. Gibbs, C.K. Jr., M.R. Landano, R.A. Mase, M.A. Meyer, G.D. Pace, J.J. Plaut, W.P. Sidney, G.W. McSmith, D.A. Spencer, T.W. Thompson, and C.J. Zeitlin, 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission Summary, Space Science Reviews, 110, 1-36, 2004.

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Christensen, P.R., B.M. Jakosky, H.H. Kieffer, M.C. Malin, H.Y. McSween, Jr., K. Nealson, G.L. Mehall, S.H. Silverman, S. Ferry, M. Caplinger, and M. Ravine, The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the Mars 2001 Odyssey Mission, Space Science  Reviews, 110, 85-130, 2004.

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2003

Christensen, P.R., Formation of recent martian gullies through melting of extensive water-rich snow deposits, Nature, 422, 45-48; doi:10.1038/nature01436, 2003.

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