TES discovered a new category of surface material. Before TES, scientists knew Mars has bright, fine-grain material (mostly dust) and dark, rocky material (essentially exposed bedrock). TES discovered a third type of surface material (arrow), medium in brightness and neither dusty nor rocky. The new surface material may consist of sediments that were once loose but have become cemented.
- Mellon, M. T., B. M. Jakosky, H. H. Kieffer, and P. R. Christensen, High resolution thermal inertia mapping from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Icarus, 148, 437-455, 2000.